|REDHILL AND REIGATE LIFE ARTICLES 2004 - 2005|
|Since 2004 the short local history articles have appeared in the Redhill and Reigate Life newspaper. Some of the stories concerning Redhill are taken from the books 'A History of Redhill' volumes 1 and 2. Others, including those for Reigate, are from other researched material. If you have any comments concerning any of the articles please contact author|
The Colman Institute
Trees in Redhill
|The Municipal Buildings at Reigate|
Land was first offered for Borough Municipal Buildings in 1863. Mr G.E.Pym was asked to negotiate with the vendor but nothing came of the matter. Council meetings were held alternately at the Market Hall, Redhill and the Public Hall or the Old Town Hall at Reigate. In 1880 a plot of land was again offered and rejected. Various other sites came up and accepted but later rescinded as the Council changed its mind.
The matter became urgent when an 1890s report of HM Inspector of Police on Redhill police station said that it was inadequate and the Borough police force was thereby rendered inefficient. The significance was that the withholding of a certificate of efficiency would lose the Council a large grant it received from the Home Office. Mr Pym was again involved as he managed to persuade the inspector to issue the certificate upon an assurance that the Council would erect Municipal Buildings incorporating a new police station.
The word 'centralised' was attached to the project, to most people meaning a site midway between Redhill and Reigate. Land was found at Shaws Corner, the ideal central position, but far cheaper land was also available at Castle Field, Reigate, and being freehold was preferred by the Council. Bitter disputes broke out between Councillors representing the two towns but in the end the Municipal Buildings were opened in November 1901 in Castlefield Road, Reigate. The title 'Municipal Buildings' was officially changed to 'Town Hall' in July 1935.
|Redhill at War|
At the beginning of WW2 Reigate Borough Chief Fire Officer Begg had 270 full time personnel. Fire stations at Redhill, Reigate, South Park and Meadvale were equipped to deal with any local fires. A control centre was manned 24 hours a day, as was each station, and it was judged that at a regulated speed of 10-15mph any station could deal with any incident within its radius. This speed might seem low, but there were reasons. One was that towing vehicles racing too fast to fires resulted in the overturning of trailer pumps; another was that with headlamps dimmed by blackout regulations the meeting of vehicles coming the other way was a definite hazard. This was just the case one dark night when the Redhill Brigade was driving along the A23 to deal with incendiary fires at Church Hill, Merstham. The regulation-dimmed headlights were good enough to see a rabbit running directly ahead of them. Faced with the probability of running it down the driver momentarily lifted his foot from the accelerator only to immediately find also directly ahead, and coming in the opposite direction with no lights at all, a column of tanks. Mounting the pavement the fire engine successfully negotiated its way past the column, picked up reasonable speed again and arrived at its destination able to fight fires in several houses. The rabbit lived to see another day. The picture above shows the fire, police and ambulance station in London Road in the early 1940s.
(Author's note: The man with the strap across his chest almost centre of the picture is my father. If anyone thinks they know anyone else in the picture please contact author)
Reigate at War
|St Joseph's Church|
The original St Josephs church was built c1860-61 and the school was at the foot of the hilly part of Chapel Road. The church was small, barely visible behind trees in the picture from before 1895 on the left. The school was probably just one room. Note the original Reading Arch on the left.
When rebuilt c1897 the site changed dramatically. St Josephs Church and Presbytery, shown below in the 1970s, faced onto the High Street with the infants school moved further up the hill. Classrooms were in a building with stone steps up to the front door, and in later years there was a pine clad hut across the yard that was also a classroom. Two metal dustbins stood by the steps and children used to heat plasticine on the lids on warm days to make it softer. School uniform was navy blue with a red blouse for the girls and a white shirt with a red tie for the boys. The very young infants classrooms were on the ground floor, those for older infants were on the first floor: there were probably about four classes in total. A teacher remembered by pupils in the 1960s was Sister Bernadette, tall and thin with little black rimmed glasses. All the buildings have been demolished and the site is now occupied by Bridge Gate House. The church seen in the background of both pictures is the Congregational church, itself now the site of flats. (Lower picture courtesy John Eede)
Reigate Post Office
| Tracks on Reigate Hill|
Several routes carried traffic from Reigate to the top of the downs before the present road was made. Some, deeply sunk and narrow, still remain, although they look impassable by any traffic bulkier than a man with a packhorse. Access to the new road was via the High Street and London Road until the making of the tunnel in 1823, provided a short cut. The cutting at the top of the hill to bypass the old dog leg bend, now the route through the car park, further shortened the journey.
The steepness of Reigate Hill and its untreated surface made progress difficult, especially during wet weather. One of the methods employed to overcome the problem for north-bound traffic was the addition of a pair of extra horses to a coachs team 'to aid in pulling it to the top of the hill. Another remedy was the laying, in 1839, of twin 'tram tracks',made of granite, on which the coach wheels could more easily run on the steepest fifty yards of the gradient. This must have proved a success because in 1840 it was ordered that two hundred yards more be added, the work to be carried out by 'individuals feeling an interest in the work', which probably meant business men who made money out of the carriage trade and who wanted to see increased prosperity brought to the town. In the top picture the rough surface of Reigate Hill as well as the granite tracks on the up side can be seen.
The picture on the right was not included in the original article but serves to show the tracks in use, although not by the heavily laden coach which is passing a stationary cart that is using them. This picture also shows the two extra horses leading the coaches team and the rider who would take them back to the stables at the White Hart Hotel once they were unhitched at the top of the hill.
St John's School, Redhill
NOTE:- The history of St John's School has been written and it is hoped to publish it in book form later this year (2006). If you are interested in being notified when it is published pleased contact author
|The Redhill Cottage Hospital|
The local Cottage Hospital began in a pair of converted cottages in Reigate in 1866, moving to larger premises at Whitepost Hill, Redhill, in 1871. The admittance of patients was at the discretion of the hospital doctor, those he considered unsuitable were referred to the workhouse infirmary. All kinds of conditions were mixed in the hospital as the problem of bacterial infection was unrealised in the early days.
Doctors worked voluntarily, the hospital being supported by donations. At first there were twelve beds at Whitepost Hill but an 1876 west wing increased the number to eighteen. As the hospital grew in size so increased funds were required. The Reigate and Redhill Hospital Fund was instituted in 1880 and annual marches with bands and banners were held in the July of each year. Proceeds allowed an east wing commemorating the diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria to be provided in 1897, adding six more beds. The capacity increased to 30 beds by 1890.
In 1907 the word 'Cottage' was dropped from the name and in 1908 a children's ward was added. Demand on the hospital continued due to increases in population, industrial accidents and WW1 and staff numbers increased steadily, as did the size of the hospital. In 1923 two adjoining properties were purchased for nurses accommodation and the entrance was moved to Shrewsbury Road. An orthopaedic ward was opened by the Countess of Harewood in 1930. By 1934 half of the admissions were due to road accidents. In 1937 the Elm Road nurses home was opened by the Countess of Athlone.
In 1948 the hospital, by now called the East Surrey Hospital, became part of the National Health Service. Expansion reached its limits in the 1980s when it was transferred bit by bit to the Redhill General Hospital, the building becoming a private nursing home in 1986.
The picture shows the hospital as it was c1950. The original building is that single story structure with the added two roof windows, the mass behind is later extensions.
Saxon farms once occupied cleared land below the downs where Reigate now is. William de Warenne, who fought at the battle of Hastings, was endowed with Surrey estates and in the twelfth century built a castle which encouraged a new settlement to grow close by for protection and trade. This was the beginning of Reigate, a village which was to grow into a prosperous market townset in a rural area along the ancient route along the foot of the downs. It was not until the railway came, seven hundred years later, that anything happened to permanently disturb its tranquillity.
The area of St John's, once known as Little London, was populated in 1840/1 by workers building the London to Brighton railway. The people of Reigate, believing this to be the centre of an important new community, built a new church there in 1843. A school was also built. By 1844 there was a railway station at Earlswood, not far from St Johns, but in 1845 this was relocated to the site of the present Redhill station. In 1846 leasehold land was sold for development in the current Warwick Road area and a new settlement, briefly known as Warwick Town, evolved and Little London grew no more. The new settlement spread towards the station and soon became known as Red Hill, after the reddish sand workings on the common to the South. A new town had been born that was eventually to outstrip its Reigate neighbour.
The picture shows the original St John's School building (demolished 1909) with Pendleton Road in front of it.
|The Pillar on Redhill Common|
After the London to Brighton railway was completed in 1841 the line to Dover was built in 1844. The government would not allow a new line to be made from London so Redhill was chosen as the site for the new line to branch eastwards. After the initial curve the long straight stretch from the Philanthropic was sighted by the construction engineer from a pillar built for the purpose on Redhill Common.
The sighting pillar can be seen right of picture..
Once its job was complete the pillar, a brick structure with a fixing point on its top for the surveyor's instrument, remained, with a wooden seat around it for the restful enjoyment of the common users. Although no doubt taken for granted by local people it was quite an important monument, for it was through the railway that Redhill had come into being.
|The Early Borough Police Force (1 of 3)|
The Borough of Reigate got its own police force in 1864. The first Head Constable, George Gifford, lasted only nine days and was succeeded by George Rogers who held the post for many years. Under him were a sergeant and eight constables. The police station was in a house at Redhill near the Market Hall but there were no lock-up facilities and prisoners had to be catered for elsewhere until a house in West Street, Reigate, was rented and the cellar was converted into cells.
Consideration was given to the siting of a central police stationnear Shaws Corner but the project never got under way and a new police station was built alongside the Market Hall in 1866 and became the headquarters for the two towns. Reigate's station remained, although it was moved into the High Street. The title of Superintendent of Police was changed to Head Constable in 1870.
The Borough Force outside Redhill Police Station 1879
|The Early Borough Police Force (2 of 3)|
The expression you just cant get the staff, has the meaning that those you do get are less that satisfactory. This could well have applied to the Borough of Reigates early police force, for in 1864, the first year of its existence, PC Stovell was fined for misconduct, PC Dashwood, and later PC Stovell, were discharged (reason not given), PC Foss was reprimanded and later fined five shillings, PC Ison was told to be more respectful and later fined one days pay, PC Harling was convicted of stealing, and PC Serjeant was reprimanded for exposing an immoral article. Drink was the downfall of several PCs as in 1865 PCs Baugh and Beddington were dismissed for being drunk, and in 1871 PC Lewis was dismissed for drinking with poachers. In 1874 PC Whiteland was dismissed for being found in a house of Ill fame.
The Reigate Police Force of 1904.
And misdemeanours were not confined to the lower ranks. Head Constable George Rogers was followed in 1888 by William Pearson, who resigned in 1891 and was replaced by William Morant. In 1894 Philip Woodman was appointed but was fairly soon arrested for embezzling police funds at his previous employment in the Bradford police force. Stability was restored by the appointment of Head Constable James Metcalfe, who ended this period of change at the top by remaining for 36 years.
|The Early Police Force (3 of 3)|
By the 1890s the Reigate Police Force had increased in numbers with the growth of the two towns and the Redhill police station had become too small for the increased size of the force and extra responsibilities, such as weights and measures, something not missed by HM Inspector of police who in a report stated it was inadequate, and that the police force therefore was rendered inefficient. The significance of this was that the withholding of a certificate of efficiency would lose the Council the £1,750 grant it received annually from the Home Office for the upkeep of the force. The Council began to consider erecting Municipal Buildings that would incorporate a Police Station and Law Court.
Municipal Buildings were duly built at Reigate and made provision for a brand new police headquarters station and cells in the basement with stairs leading to the court (now the council chamber) on the first floor. There was also a new house next door for the Head Constable. The Reigate station was sold and the Redhill station, although no longer the force HQ, remained as the local station. Accommodation at the new Reigate building was also to eventually become too small as the size of both force and council increased steadily. The result was that the Reigate police presence was later moved to a house called Cherchefelle, in Chart Lane.
The picture shows Chief Constable J Metcalfe in charge of the Borough Police en route to the Parish Church in 1909. Members of the Fire Brigade march behind.
A Sewerage Works and a Pleasure Ground
One of several War Office bounday stones that still stand on Redhill Common
The legal wheels were put in motion. Conveyance of all land was approved and in 1867 the Corporation borrowed £4,000 against the rates to defray the cost, £1,000 of which was for fencing, ditching, levelling and laying out the land. Eventually the Corporation became the proprietors of two sites, each suited for the purpose for which it was acquired, and at an overall cost of about £40 an acre, the current price in the area then being from £200 to £300 an acre. It was a deal that benefits us all to the present day.........................................
|An Ambulance Presented|
........A new ambulance was taken over by the Reigate Corps of the St John Ambulance in June 1938 in the days when things were not done by halves. A band provided the music at parade preceding a dedication ceremony at Reigate Parish Church in Chart Lane. Present at the dedication service were Sir Jeremiah Colman in his capacity as President of the Reigate St John Ambulance Corps and the Mayor and Mayoress of Reigate, Alderman and Mrs Hamblen. Also present were the deputy Mayor and Mayoress, Alderman Lt-Col and Mrs Dudley Lewis. Others included Alderman Lt-Col and Mrs Spranger, the Chief Constable of Reigate, Mr W.Beacher, many of the top-ranking officers of the St John Ambulance Brigade, as other Reigate people and members of neighbouring contingents of the St John Brigade. Outside the church the Assistant Commissioner of the St John Brigade ambulance made a speech as he officially handed the new ambulance over to Sir Jeremiah, who accepting it made another speech in which he handed it on to the Reigate Corps.
In the picture Sir Jeremiah Colman and the Assistant Commissioner (in uniform) are standing alongside the ambulance.
Then it was back into the church for an address by the Vicar of St Mary's, the Rev R.Talbot and a hymn, 'O God Our Help in Ages Past'. The company was then entertained to tea at the Parish Hall where more congratulatory speeches were made. This major event was the culmination of a period during which St John Brigade funds had grown to the point where the Corps could afford to entirely finance the ambulance purchase. It was the third ambulance taken over by the Corps, the first two having been paid for by Sir Jeremiah Colman. The vehicle was a 1938 model Austin, described as the last word in efficiency and comfort for the patient.
A Reigate Pub The Beehive
An unusual Pub The Huntsman Inn in Redhill High Street
Redhill General Hospital
A view of the Redhill General Hospital c1918
The workhouse existed until 1936 when Surrey County Council took it over. By 1938/9 all the inmates had been moved to St Anne's. New buildings were erected and the old workhouse site with its infirmary became the Surrey County Hospital, a name later changed to Redhill County Hospital. With the advent of the National Health Service in 1948 the hospital was transferred away from Surrey County to the South West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board, and the new name of Redhill General Hospital ..came into being. The hospital previously locally referred to simply as 'The County', now it became the 'County General' or just 'The General'. The hospital expanded considerably over the years, especially as it absorbed the East Surrey Hospital's facilities when that hospital's own site became unable to support further expansion, but it, too, was to face closure for the very same reason. In 1971 the news was that a huge new hospital was to be built in two phases south of Redhill, the first phase to be ready by 1979. Margaret Thatcher opened Phase 1 in 1984 and, eight years later in 1992, Virginia Bottomly opened Phase 2. Now mostly demolished, the old Redhill (County) General is a walled housing estate.
Elm Road, Redhill, was once a farm track and, like Shrewsbury, Brownlow and Ranelagh Roads, was joined onto Whitepost Hill when the farmland forming the Waterslade area was developed. The dictionary defines 'slade' as: 'a little valley or dell; a flat piece of low moist ground', so 'water' and 'slade' fit together to describe this area as land with an abundant water supply.
Most of the water probably ran into the valley from the slopes of Redhill Common, and a number of springs have been known. Waterslade Spring, at the corner of Elm Road and Whitepost Hill, is pictured here. Although dry now it supplied water to the holders of the allotments at the corner of The Chase and Blackborough Road at least as recently as the 1940s (the allotments site is now occupied by houses). Another spring a few yards along the road to where Blackstone once stood provided water for the people of Linkfield Street.
The photo shows the brick cowl of the Waterslade Spring, which still.stands although, although the spring has been dry for many years. Until a few years ago the words Waterslade Spring could just be made out on. the white stone inset into.the bricks.
Springs had a habit of suddenly appearing. One appeared in a garden in Linkfield Street and had to be diverted to prevent flooding. One in Charman Road flooded a garden for a few days before drying up. When a WW2 delayed action bomb went off in Shrewsbury Road a basement not far from the explosion was flooded. It was assumed a water pipe had been fractured but when the basement was baled out there was no water pipe and the basement did not refill, possibly another example of a short-lived spring.
Carnival processions were popular events in Redhill and Reigate throughout the first half of the 20th century and beyond. Many of them consisted of floats and parades reflecting the holiday mood, with prizes for the most imaginative and colourful creations that paraded through the streets. Other of the processions were slightly different, their themes being the pageantry of events in our nations history. One very large such processional pageant was organised in 1935 for the Silver Jubilee of King George V. Members of various local organisations dressed up to represent historic scenes. The Redhill British Legion showed portrayed a scene from the time of Boadicea; the Redhill YMCA the Romans; Redhill and Reigate Guides St Augustine; St Marks Club Alfred the Great; the Rover Scouts William the Conqueror; Merstham Village the Canterbury Pilgrims, Reigate Grammar School King John and the Barons; the East Surrey Amateur Operatic and Dramatic Club Henry VIII; and so on through history, involving schools, womens institutes and many other groups and clubs. The procession started in Garlands Road, Redhill and proceeded via the High Street, Station Road, Blackborough Road, Bell Street and Reigate High Street to Reigate Heath. It displayed scenes from the past in the days before television but today such public pageantry has become a thing of the past itself.
The picture shows Bill Gumbrell, the Manager of the Redhill Gas Company, dressed up for his part in a processional pageant that is passing down Garlands Road. It is known that he played the part of a herald in the procession on May 6th 1935, and with a flag flown from a nearby window, this could have been that very one.
The First Cinema in the Borough of Reigate
The above picture shows the Station Road cinema when it was still the Cinema Royal. The films showing are 'Montmartre' and 'Flame of Love'. What the banner lower down proclaiming 'Forbidden Love' referred to specifically is unknown but there is no doubt what kind of film pulled in the crowds.
As Reigate grew in importance as a market town in the 17th century, people and produce needed to get to market. Many existing roads were often impassable for wagons, and if trade was not to suffer then something had to be done.
The answer at the time was turnpiking, whereby tolls were charged for use of the roads and the revenue was used to pay for them. The first turnpiked road in Surrey, under an Act of 1697, was from Reigate to Crawley. In 1755 another Act authorised repair of the road through Sutton and Reigate to Povey Cross. In 1796 a bill was proposed to make a turnpike road from Purley, through Merstham. The bill was delayed but the road was built in 1808. Part of this road was from Wray Common to Gatton Point, and when finished it provided an alternative route North avoiding Reigate Hill.
Tollhouses and gates existed in a number of places in the borough, and lasted until the Turnpike Trust went out of existence in 1881 when the Reigate Council, formed in 1863, took over the last of the turnpike roads. The last of the Clerks to the Trust, with great foresight, commissioned a Meadvale artist to make a series of water-colours of all of them before they were destroyed. It is believed that unfortunately for the Borough the paintings all finished up in a collection in the USA
The Toll House and Gate that used to stand close to the original Yew Tree public house on Reigate Hill. This picture was taken after tolls had ceased to be collected but before the gates were removed.
The 1910 Parliamentary Election
|Bridge Road, Redhill|
Bridge Road was unimaginatively named after a bridge that carried it over the Redhill to Reading railway line. Many of the bridges in the town were very narrow and five of them were widened at considerable expense in the first few years of the 20th century. The one in Bridge Road, originally a wooden structure, was one of them.
Probably laid out in the 1850s or 1860s, Bridge Road was later divided into Bridge Road Upper and Bridge Road Lower, these names eventually becoming Upper Bridge Road and Lower Bridge Road. Lower Bridge Road once joined the High Street between the Pavilion Cinema and the Old Oak public house. Both of these buildings have been demolished and the old road end built across. The houses that once stood in Lower Bridge Road have been replaced by flats and only the Salvation Army Citadel remains from the roads earlier days. One fairly significant change was the removal of the large ash tree that grew close to the bridge. Presumably it pre-dated the road, the pavement being built around it.
The large ash tree that once stood close to the bridge in Bridge Road
Upper Bridge Road, which ends near the common, has not changed as much as its lower counterpart, retaining many of the original houses built on either side of it. . Some have been replaced by more modern buildings, however, and one was demolished after a bomb fell in front of it during WW2; for many years there was an allotment where it had been.
|The Roundabout, Earlswood Common|
The Roundabout was the name given to an isolated group of twelve cottages that once stood on the common opposite the present Redhill and Reigate Golf Club. A cart track led to them from Pendleton Road (then called Union Road). When they were built is unknown but in 1900 they were considered worthy of removal, presumably because they were on the common. The Council was sympathetic to the idea but when the cottages were offered at auction was unable to bid as it could only deal with known costs and had no way of knowing what any winning bid might be.
To overcome the problem a group of local men offered to bid for the cottages and, if successful, sell them to the Council. Then, as the cottages became vacant they could be demolished. The consortium was successful in 1903, paying
£1,200, but there were problems, not all Councillors being in favour of the idea. Eventually the Council did buy the Roundabout Cottages from the consortium but in spite of the acquisition it was over half a century before they were finally demolished.
Today the golf course has been extended with the addition of a practice area opposite the Golf Club and golf balls bounce and roll on closely mown turf that covers the place close to where a dozen families once lived.
The above picture shows the cottages on Earlswood Common known as the Roundabout (courtesy S.Ware)
Major Kingsley Osbern Foster lived at a house called Shenley on the corner of Brighton Road and Hooley Lane, a location later to become the site of the Ark Royal Training Ship. He was at various times President of Redhill Constitutional Club, Redhill Football Club, the Redhill Society of Instrumentalists, Redhill Amateur Dramatic Club and Redhill Ratepayers Union. He was also a trustee and chairman for 18 years of the old East Surrey Hospital, a board member of Earlswood Asylum and a warden of St John's Church. As a county magistrate he was involved in the celebrated 'poison letter' case, in which an Earlswood woman got a neighbour sent to prison for writing scurrilous and threatening letters, later proven to have been written by herself. The Major had been among the magistrates at one of the quarter session trials and later himself received a letter from the woman threatening to blow up his house and demanding £50 from him.
Astronomy was a hobby of the Major; he had a 40-500 magnification telescope on a seven-ton concrete base in his grounds, and in May 1900 was a member of the British Government's expedition to Algiers to view .........
an eclipse of the sun..
Major Kingsley Foster died in 1922. His widow lived at Shenley until her
death just before WW2, when the house was used as a hostel for European refugees. After the war it became the Sea Cadets' training ship Ark Royal. The house has since been demolished and the present Ark Royal Training Ship HQ built on the site.
|The Redhill Market Hall|
The Market Hall was built on half an acre of land bought for £200 to fulfil a need in the town for meeting rooms and indoor market. The erection of two cottages on the site had been stopped because the land was too boggy but the Reigate builder of the Market Hall overcame the problem, probably by sinking deep piles. The first brick was laid in 1859 and work completed in 1861. The meeting room was alternately used with the public hall at Reigate for council meetings so much of the boroughs history was laid down there.
The Market Hall in the 1920s
.........Finance for the project was in the form of £5 shares but the first twelve years of the company formed to mange the project were less than wholly successful. In 1871 a new company was formed and the field opposite the hall bought to create a livestock market. The new company did better enabling the Market Hall building to be enlarged to accommodate a bank and the post office. The local market moved out of the building when as dance floor was installed in 1896 and eventually.moved into the market field.
|The Post Office|
In 1843 a Mr Comber of Redhill won a tender to carry the night mail from Reigate to Godstone and Reigate to Guildford. The contract included the setting up of a sub-post office to
The Post Office when on the London Road side of the Market Hall
As Redhill grew the post office premises became inadequate and in the very early 1900s were moved to the west wing of the Market Hall. Fronting onto London Road this was a much more central position in the town but further moves were afoot. At 8 a.m. on Monday June 13th 1932 the new Redhill Post Office opened at the corner of London and Clarendon Roads. There was no opening ceremony, business being simply transferred. This is where the post office remained until the early 1990s when it moved into the upper part of the Belfry shopping mall, not very far from where it had first been re-situated in old Warwick Town in 1856.
...The Triumphal Arch in Bell Street, Reigate 1837
Twenty-six years later, in 1863, Queen Victoria was the person who signed the charter of incorporation that created the Borough of Reigate, transferring power from the Lord of the manor to the Mayor, Aldermen and Councillors of the new Town Council. This ushered in a new way of conducting civic affairs, with all the Council members being accountable to the electorate at elections instead of the lord of the manor holding power and passing it to his heirs..................................................................................
Church Street Reigate in the 1920s
Redhills Station Road Railway Tunnel
|The articles above were published in 2004 and 2005. To see articles published in 2006 click here.|